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Ecotoxicology. 2010 Aug;19(6):1140-6. doi: 10.1007/s10646-010-0497-9. Epub 2010 Apr 29.

Toxicity and risk of permethrin and naled to non-target insects after adult mosquito management.

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  • 1Department of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, 334 Leon Johnson Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717-3120, USA.


We derived laboratory LC50 values, assessed non-target insect risks, and conducted a field bioassay for ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerosol applications of insecticides used to manage adult mosquitoes. The house cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.), was used as an indicator species for medium- to large-bodied ground dwelling insects. The 24-h LC(50) values for Permanone (formulated product of permethrin), Permanone + piperonyl butoxide (PBO), technical grade permethrin, and technical grade permethrin + PBO ranged from 0.052 to 0.9 microg/cm(2). The 24 h LC(50) for technical grade naled and Trumpet((R)) (formulated product of naled) were 0.038 and 0.44 microg/cm(2), respectively. The synergist ratio was 2.65 for Permanone + PBO and 1.57 for technical grade permethrin + PBO. The toxicity of technical grade permethrin was about 10-fold greater than Permanone. A risk assessment using modeled estimated environmental concentrations resulted in risk quotients (RQ) that exceeded regulatory levels of concern, but when compared to field-derived actual environmental concentrations RQs did not exceed a regulatory level of concern, except in the case of technical grade naled. These results were expected because higher tiered risk assessments using field-verified data generally lead to lower risk estimates. Field bioassays using caged crickets showed no significant mortality for permethrin or naled after a single truck-mounted ULV application. The results of the risk assessment using actual environmental concentrations are supported by the field bioassays and suggest that a single ULV application of synergized or unsynergized permethrin and naled most likely will not result in population impacts on medium- to large-bodied insects.

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