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Contrib Nephrol. 2010;164:88-117. doi: 10.1159/000313724. Epub 2010 Apr 20.

Use of biomarkers in evaluation of patients with heart failure.

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  • 1Division of Cardiology, University of California, San Diego, Calif., USA.


Despite advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of heart failure, its diagnosis and management still remain challenging. Biomarkers have added significant value to the clinical evaluation of heart failure. While their use is not intended as a substitute for clinical judgment, their relevance in diagnosis, management, and prognosis has been proven. This review focuses on biomarkers resulting from hemodynamic stress, injury and inflammation, and their clinical relevance in modern practice.

Copyright (c) 64\C S. Karger AG, Basel.

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