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Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2010;62(3):127-33. doi: 10.1159/000287211. Epub 2010 Apr 29.

Effects of online augmented kinematic and perceptual feedback on treatment of speech movements in apraxia of speech.

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  • 1Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.


Apraxia of speech (AOS) is a motor speech disorder characterized by disturbed spatial and temporal parameters of movement. Research on motor learning suggests that augmented feedback may provide a beneficial effect for training movement. This study examined the effects of the presence and frequency of online augmented visual kinematic feedback (AVKF) and clinician-provided perceptual feedback on speech accuracy in 2 adults with acquired AOS. Within a single-subject multiple-baseline design, AVKF was provided using electromagnetic midsagittal articulography (EMA) in 2 feedback conditions (50 or 100%). Articulator placement was specified for speech motor targets (SMTs). Treated and baselined SMTs were in the initial or final position of single-syllable words, in varying consonant-vowel or vowel-consonant contexts. SMTs were selected based on each participant's pre-assessed erred productions. Productions were digitally recorded and online perceptual judgments of accuracy (including segment and intersegment distortions) were made. Inter- and intra-judge reliability for perceptual accuracy was high. Results measured by visual inspection and effect size revealed positive acquisition and generalization effects for both participants. Generalization occurred across vowel contexts and to untreated probes. Results of the frequency manipulation were confounded by presentation order. Maintenance of learned and generalized effects were demonstrated for 1 participant. These data provide support for the role of augmented feedback in treating speech movements that result in perceptually accurate speech production. Future investigations will explore the independent contributions of each feedback type (i.e. kinematic and perceptual) in producing efficient and effective training of SMTs in persons with AOS.

2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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