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Int J Food Microbiol. 2010 Jun 15;140(2-3):239-48. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.03.024. Epub 2010 Mar 21.

Biological diversity of Saccharomyces yeasts of spontaneously fermenting wines in four wine regions: comparative genotypic and phenotypic analysis.

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  • 1Department of Genetics and Applied Microbiology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, Hungary.

Abstract

Combination of molecular genetic analysis (karyotyping, PCR-RFLP of MET2, the ITS1-ITS2 region and the NTS region) and physiological examination (melibiose and mannitol utilization, sugar-, ethanol- and copper tolerance, killer activity, fermentation vigor and production of metabolites) of yeasts isolated from spontaneously fermenting wines in four wine regions revealed very high diversity in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations. Practically each S. cerevisiae isolate showed a unique pattern of properties. Although the strains originating from the same wine were quite similar in certain traits, they showed diversity in other properties. These results indicate that alcoholic fermentation in grape wines is performed by highly diverse yeast consortia rather than by one or two dominating strains. The less frequent Saccharomyces uvarum strains were less diverse, showed lower karyotype variability, were Mel(+), Man(+), more sensitive to 60% sugar, and ethanol or copper in the medium. They produced less acetic acid and fermented better at 14 degrees C than most of the S. cerevisiae isolates, but certain S. cerevisiae strains showed comparably high fermentation rates at this temperature, indicating that it is not a general rule that S. uvarum ferments better than S. cerevisiae at low temperatures. The segregation of certain traits (melibiose utilization, mannitol utilization and copper resistance) in both species indicates that the genomes can easily change during vegetative propagation. The higher diversity among the S. cerevisiae isolates suggests that the S. cerevisiae genome may be more flexible than the S. uvarum genome and may allow more efficient adaptation to the continuously changing environment in the fermenting wine.

Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

PMID:
20413169
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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