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Neonatology. 2010;98(3):238-44. doi: 10.1159/000285629. Epub 2010 Apr 13.

Neonatal macrosomia is an independent risk factor for adult metabolic syndrome.

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  • 1Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Weight in infancy correlates with risk of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and obesity in adulthood. Clinical observations have been confounded by obesity-prone genotypes and obesity-linked lifestyles.

OBJECTIVES:

To define the effects of isolated neonatal macrosomia in isogenic animals, we compared macrosomic and control C57Bl6 mice co-fostered by healthy dams receiving standard laboratory feed.

METHODS:

Naturally occurring neonatal macrosomia was identified by a gender-specific weanling weight above the 90th percentile for the colony. Macrosomic and control mice were phenotyped in adulthood by exercise wheel, tail cuff and intraperitoneal insulin or glucose challenge.

RESULTS:

Compared to control males, adult males with a history of neonatal macrosomia had significantly increased body weight, reduced voluntary activity, insulin resistance, fasting hyperinsulinemia, and impaired glucose tolerance. In contrast, adult females with neonatal macrosomia had no significant alteration in body weight or endocrine phenotypes, but did have higher blood pressures and lower heart rates than control females. After these baseline studies, all mice were switched to a hypercaloric, high fat diet (5 kcal/g, 45% of energy as fat). Twenty weeks later, male mice had impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, independent of their weanling weight classification. While on high fat feeds, macrosomic males maintained a significantly higher body weight than control males.

CONCLUSIONS:

We conclude that (1) in our murine model, neonatal macrosomia is an independent risk factor of adult metabolic syndrome, and (2) neonatal macrosomia accentuates the sexually dimorphic predisposition of C57Bl6 male mice towards glucose intolerance and C57Bl6 female mice towards hypertension.

Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

PMID:
20389129
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2945261
Free PMC Article
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