Display Settings:

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010 Feb;58(2):330-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2009.02680.x. Epub 2010 Jan 26.

Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and their association with functional limitations in older adults in the United States: the aging, demographics, and memory study.

Author information

  • 1Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. t-ohkura@t3.rim.or.jp

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To estimate the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and examine their association with functional limitations.

DESIGN:

Cross-sectional analysis.

SETTING:

The Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS).

PARTICIPANTS:

A sample of adults aged 71 and older (N=856) drawn from Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative cohort of U.S. adults aged 51 and older.

MEASUREMENTS:

The presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms (delusions, hallucinations, agitation, depression, apathy, elation, anxiety, disinhibition, irritation, and aberrant motor behaviors) was identified using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. A consensus panel in the ADAMS assigned a cognitive category (normal cognition; cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND); mild, moderate, or severe dementia). Functional limitations, chronic medical conditions, and sociodemographic information were obtained from the HRS and ADAMS.

RESULTS:

Forty-three percent of individuals with CIND and 58% of those with dementia exhibited at least one neuropsychiatric symptom. Depression was the most common individual symptom in those with normal cognition (12%), CIND (30%), and mild dementia (25%), whereas apathy (42%) and agitation (41%) were most common in those with severe dementia. Individuals with three or more symptoms and one or more clinically significant symptoms had significantly higher odds of having functional limitations. Those with clinically significant depression had higher odds of activity of daily living limitations, and those with clinically significant depression, anxiety, or aberrant motor behaviors had significantly higher odds of instrumental activity of daily living limitations.

CONCLUSION:

Neuropsychiatric symptoms are highly prevalent in older adults with CIND and dementia. Of those with cognitive impairment, a greater number of total neuropsychiatric symptoms and some specific individual symptoms are strongly associated with functional limitations.

PMID:
20374406
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2875937
Free PMC Article

Images from this publication.See all images (2)Free text

Figure 1
Figure 2
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Blackwell Publishing Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk