Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Transl Oncol. 2010 Apr;3(2):65-79.

Biomarker Development for the Clinical Activity of the mTOR Inhibitor Everolimus (RAD001): Processes, Limitations, and Further Proposals.

Author information

  • 1Oncology Research, Novartis Institutes of Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland.


The mTOR inhibitor everolimus (RAD001, Afinitor) is an orally active anticancer agent. Everolimus demonstrates growth-inhibitory activity against a broad range of tumor cell histotypes in vitro and has the capacity to retard tumor growth in preclinical tumor models in vivo through mechanisms directed against both the tumor cell and the solid tumor stroma components. These properties have rendered it to be a clinically active drug, with subsequent registration in renal cell carcinoma (Motzer et al. [2008]. Lancet372, 449-456) as well as showing strong potential as a combination partner (André F et al. [2008]. J Clin Oncol26. Abstract 1003). Although everolimus has a high specificity for its molecular target, the ubiquitous nature of mTOR and the multifactorial influence that mTOR signaling has on cell physiology have made studies difficult on the identification and validation of a biomarker set to predict and monitor drug sensitivity for clinical use. In this review, a summary of the preclinical and clinical data relevant to biomarker development for everolimus is presented, and the advantages and problems of current biomarkers are reviewed. In addition, alternative approaches to biomarker development are proposed on the basis of examples of a combination of markers and functional noninvasive imaging. In particular, we show how basal levels of pAKT and pS6 together could, in principle, be used to stratify patients for likely response to an mTOR inhibitor.

Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk