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J Hematop. 2009 Jul 23;2(3):163-70. doi: 10.1007/s12308-009-0041-0.

Carcinoma and multiple lymphomas in one patient: establishing the diagnoses and analyzing risk factors.

Abstract

Multiple malignancies may occur in the same patient, and a few reports describe cases with multiple hematologic and non-hematologic neoplasms. We report the case of a patient who showed the sequential occurrence of four different lymphoid neoplasms together with a squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. A 62-year-old man with adenopathy was admitted to the hospital, and lymph node biopsy was positive for low-grade follicular lymphoma. He achieved a partial remission with chemotherapy. Two years later, a PET-CT scan showed a left hilar mass in the lung; biopsy showed a squamous cell carcinoma. Simultaneously, he was diagnosed with diffuse large B cell lymphoma in a neck lymph node; after chemo- and radiotherapy, he achieved a complete response. A restaging PET-CT scan 2 years later revealed a retroperitoneal nodule, and biopsy again showed a low-grade follicular lymphoma, while a biopsy of a cutaneous scalp lesion showed a CD30-positive peripheral T cell lymphoma. After some months, a liver biopsy and a right cervical lymph node biopsy showed a CD30-positive peripheral T cell lymphoma consistent with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Flow cytometry and cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis performed at diagnosis and during the patient's follow-up confirmed the presence of two clonally distinct B cell lymphomas, while the two T cell neoplasms were confirmed to be clonally related. We discuss the relationship between multiple neoplasms occurring in the same patient and the various possible risk factors involved in their development.

KEYWORDS:

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma; Cytogenetics; Diffuse large B cell lymphoma; Follicular lymphoma; Multiple malignancies; Risk factors

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