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J Urol. 2010 May;183(5):1757-63. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2010.01.025. Epub 2010 Mar 17.

Characteristics and outcomes of patients with clinical carcinoma in situ only treated with radical cystectomy: an international study of 243 patients.

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  • 1Ludwig-Maximilians-Universit√§t M√ľnchen, Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich, Germany.



We describe the rate of up staging and the cancer specific outcomes of patients with carcinoma in situ refractory to transurethral resection with intravesical therapy treated with radical cystectomy.


The records of 3,207 patients treated with radical cystectomy for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder at 8 centers in the United States, Canada and Europe were reviewed.


Of the 3,207 patients who underwent radical cystectomy 243 (7.6%) had clinical carcinoma in situ only disease before radical cystectomy. At radical cystectomy 117 patients (48.1%) had carcinoma in situ only, 20 (8.2%) had pT0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, 19 (7.8%) had pTa urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and 36% had disease up staged (32 [13.2%] pT1, 29 [11.9%] pT2, 12 [4.9%] pT3 and 14 [5.8%] pT4). A total of 22 patients (9.1%) had lymphovascular invasion in the radical cystectomy specimen and 14 (5.8%) had metastasis to regional lymph nodes. Overall 5-year recurrence-free and cancer specific survival estimates were 74% (95% CI 68-79) and 85% (95% CI 80-89), respectively. On multivariable analysis adjusting for the effects of standard predictors, lymph node metastasis and lymphovascular invasion were associated with an increased risk of disease recurrence (p = 0.017 and p = 0.043, respectively) and cancer specific mortality (p = 0.019 and p = 0.001, respectively). Female gender was an independent risk factor for cancer specific mortality (p = 0.029) but not for disease recurrence (p = 0.173).


Approximately a fourth of patients treated with radical cystectomy for clinical carcinoma in situ only had muscle invasive disease and 5.8% had metastasis to regional lymph nodes. Identification of those patients with a potentially aggressive natural history of carcinoma in situ is of the utmost importance as they are likely to benefit from early radical cystectomy.

2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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