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Am J Manag Care. 2010 Mar;16(3):e75-e85.

Economics of influenza vaccine administration timing for children.

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  • 1Public Health Computation and Operations Research (PHICOR) Group, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.



To determine how much should be invested each year to encourage and operationalize the administration of influenza vaccine to children before November and how late the vaccine should be offered each year.


Monte Carlo decision analytic computer simulation models.


The children's influenza vaccination timing model quantified the incremental economic value of vaccinating a child earlier in the influenza season and the incremental cost of delaying vaccination. The children's monthly influenza vaccination decision model evaluated the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating versus not vaccinating for every month of the influenza season.


Getting children vaccinated by the end of October rather than when they are currently getting vaccinated could save society between $6.4 million and $9.2 million plus 653 and 926 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and third-party payers between $4.1 million and $6.1 million plus 647 to 942 QALYs each year. Decision makers may want to continue offering influenza vaccination to children at least through the end of December. Vaccinating with trivalent inactivated virus vaccine was more cost-effective than vaccinating with live attenuated influenza vaccine for every month.


Policymakers could invest up to $6 million to $9 million a year to get children vaccinated in September or October without expending any net costs.

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