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Diabetes Educ. 2010 Mar-Apr;36(2):301-9. doi: 10.1177/0145721710361388. Epub 2010 Mar 3.

3-year follow-up of clinical and behavioral improvements following a multifaceted diabetes care intervention: results of a randomized controlled trial.

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  • 1Gretchen A. Piatt, MPH, 4601 Baum Blvd, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.



The purpose of this study was to determine if improvements observed in clinical, behavioral, and psychosocial outcomes measured at 12 months following a multifaceted diabetes care intervention were sustained at 3-year follow-up.


This study was a multilevel, nonblinded, cluster design, randomized controlled trial that took place in an underserved suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, between 1999 and 2005. Eleven primary care practices, and their patients, were randomly assigned to 3 groups: chronic care model (CCM) intervention (n = 30), provider education only (PROV) (n = 38), and usual care (UC) (n = 51). Subjects were followed for 3 years.


Improvements observed at 12-month follow-up in glycemic (-0.5%) and blood pressure control (-4.8 mm Hg), and the proportion of participants who self-monitor their blood glucose (86.7%-100%), were sustained at 3-year follow-up in the CCM group. Additional improvements occurred in non-HDLc levels in all study groups and quality of well-being scores in the CCM intervention group. All associations remained after controlling for medication treatment intensification.


We have demonstrated that improvements in outcomes can be sustained over time following a multifaceted diabetes care intervention. Future research in this area is necessary to understand if improvements in outcomes can be sustained following diabetes self-management education (DSME) and what type of patient fares the best from multifaceted diabetes care interventions.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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