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Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2010 Sep;122(3):255-66. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2010.01539.x. Epub 2010 Feb 25.

Risk factors predicting onset and persistence of subthreshold expression of bipolar psychopathology among youth from the community.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry, South Limburg Mental Health Research and Teaching Network, EURON, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.



To examine factors increasing the risk for onset and persistence of subthreshold mania and depression.


In a prospective cohort community study, the association between risk factors [a family history of mood disorders, trauma, substance use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and temperamental/personality traits] and onset of manic/depressive symptoms was determined in 705 adolescents. The interaction between baseline risk factors and baseline symptoms in predicting 8-year follow-up symptoms was used to model the impact of risk factors on persistence.


Onset of manic symptoms was associated with cannabis use and novelty seeking (NS), but NS predicted a transitory course. Onset of depressive symptoms was associated with a family history of depression. ADHD and harm avoidance (HA) were associated with persistence of depressive symptoms, while trauma and a family history of depression predicted a transitory course.


Different risk factors may operate during onset and persistence of subthreshold mania and depression. The differential associations found for mania and depression dimensions suggest partly different underlying mechanisms.

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