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Annu Rev Biochem. 2010;79:181-211. doi: 10.1146/annurev.biochem.052308.093131.

The mechanism of double-strand DNA break repair by the nonhomologous DNA end-joining pathway.

Author information

  • Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA. lieber@usc.edu

Abstract

Double-strand DNA breaks are common events in eukaryotic cells, and there are two major pathways for repairing them: homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous DNA end joining (NHEJ). The various causes of double-strand breaks (DSBs) result in a diverse chemistry of DNA ends that must be repaired. Across NHEJ evolution, the enzymes of the NHEJ pathway exhibit a remarkable degree of structural tolerance in the range of DNA end substrate configurations upon which they can act. In vertebrate cells, the nuclease, DNA polymerases, and ligase of NHEJ are the most mechanistically flexible and multifunctional enzymes in each of their classes. Unlike repair pathways for more defined lesions, NHEJ repair enzymes act iteratively, act in any order, and can function independently of one another at each of the two DNA ends being joined. NHEJ is critical not only for the repair of pathologic DSBs as in chromosomal translocations, but also for the repair of physiologic DSBs created during variable (diversity) joining [V(D)J] recombination and class switch recombination (CSR). Therefore, patients lacking normal NHEJ are not only sensitive to ionizing radiation (IR), but also severely immunodeficient.

PMID:
20192759
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3079308
Free PMC Article

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