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J Trauma. 2010 Oct;69(4):843-8. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181c45284.

Proinflammatory cytokine surge after injury stimulates an airway immunoglobulin a increase.

Author information

  • 1Veterans Administration Surgical Services, William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

: Injury stimulates an innate airway IgA response in severely injured patients, which also occurs in mice. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β stimulate the production of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, the protein required to transport immunoglobulin A (IgA) to mucosal surfaces. Blockade of TNF-α and IL-1β eliminates the airway IgA response to injury. IL-6 stimulates differentiation of B cells into IgA-secreting plasma cells at mucosal sites. We investigated the local and systemic kinetics of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 after injury in mice. We also hypothesized that injection of exogenous TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 would replicate the airway IgA response to injury.

METHODS:

: Experiment 1: male Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomized to uninjured controls (n = 8) or to surgical stress with laparotomy and neck incisions, with killing at 1, 2, 3, 5, or 8 hours after injury (n = 8/group). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Experiment 2: male Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomized to uninjured controls (n = 6), injury (surgical stress that was similar to experiment 1 except the peritoneum was left intact, n = 6), or cytokine injection with intraperitoneal injection of recombinant TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Animals were killed at 2 hours after injury, and nasal airway lavage and BAL IgA were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

RESULTS:

: Experiment 1: BAL TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels increased in bimodal pattern after injury at 3 hours and 8 hours versus controls (p < 0.05). Serum IL-6 did not increase at 3 hours, but did show a significant increase by 5 hours versus control (p < 0.05). Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β did not change. Experiment 2: both Injury and combination TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 cytokine injection significantly increased IgA levels in airway lavage (BAL + nasal airway lavage) compared with control (p < 0.01 for both).

CONCLUSIONS:

: Airway levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 increase in a bimodal pattern after injury with peaks at 3 hours and 8 hours, which do not correspond to serum changes. The peak at 8 hours is consistent with the known increase in airway IgA after injury. Intraperitoneal injection of a combination exogenous TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 replicates the airway IgA increase after injury. This effect is not seen with individual cytokine injections.

PMID:
20173656
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2953611
Free PMC Article

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