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Indian J Community Med. 2009 Oct;34(4):329-34. doi: 10.4103/0970-0218.58393.

Community-based Randomized Controlled Trial of Non-pharmacological Interventions in Prevention and Control of Hypertension among Young Adults.

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  • 1Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Post-graduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER), Puducherry-6, India.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Hypertension is a major chronic lifestyle disease. Several non-pharmacological interventions are effective in bringing down the blood pressure (BP). This study focuses on the effectiveness of such interventions among young adults.

AIMS:

To measure the efficacy of physical exercise, reduction in salt intake, and yoga, in lowering BP among young (20-25) pre-hypertensives and hypertensives, and to compare their relative efficacies.

SETTINGS AND DESIGN:

The study was done in the urban service area of JIPMER. Pre-hypertensives and hypertensives, identified from previous studies, constituted the universe. The participants were randomized into one control and three interventional groups.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A total of 113 subjects: 30, 28, 28 and 27 in four groups respectively participated for eight weeks: control (I), physical exercise (II) - brisk walking for 50-60 minutes, four days/week, salt intake reduction (III) - to at least half of their previous intake, and practice of yoga (IV) - for 30-45 minutes/day on at least five days/week.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED:

Efficacy was assessed using paired t test and ANOVA with Games Howell post hoc test. An intention to treat analysis was also performed.

RESULTS:

A total of 102 participants (29, 27, 25 and 21 in groups I, II, III and IV) completed the study. All three intervention groups showed a significant reduction in BP (SBP/DBP: 5.3/6.0 in group II, 2.6/3.7 in III, and 2.0/2.6 mm Hg in IV respectively). There was no significant change (SBP/DBP: 0.2/0.5 mmHg) of BP in control group (I). Physical exercise was most effective (considered individually); salt intake reduction and yoga were also effective.

CONCLUSIONS:

Physical exercise, salt intake reduction, and yoga are effective non-pharmacological interventions in significantly reducing BP among young hypertensives and pre-hypertensives. These can therefore be positively recommended for hypertensives. There is also a case to deploy these interventions in the general population.

KEYWORDS:

Community-based randomized controlled trial; hypertension; physical exercise; relative efficacies; salt intake reduction; yoga; young adults

PMID:
20165628
[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC2822195
Free PMC Article
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