Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010 Feb;18(1):37-50. doi: 10.1037/a0018649.

A contingency-management intervention to promote initial smoking cessation among opioid-maintained patients.

Author information

  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.


Prevalence of cigarette smoking among opioid-maintained patients is more than threefold that of the general population and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Relatively few studies have evaluated smoking interventions in this population. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy of contingency management for promoting initial smoking abstinence. Forty methadone- or buprenorphine-maintained cigarette smokers were randomly assigned to a contingent (n = 20) or noncontingent (n = 20) experimental group and visited the clinic for 14 consecutive days. Contingent participants received vouchers based on breath carbon monoxide levels during Study Days 1 to 5 and urinary cotinine levels during Days 6 to 14. Voucher earnings began at $9.00 and increased by $1.50 with each subsequent negative sample for maximum possible of $362.50. Noncontingent participants earned vouchers independent of smoking status. Although not a primary focus, participants who were interested and medically eligible could also receive bupropion (Zyban). Contingent participants achieved significantly more initial smoking abstinence, as evidenced by a greater percentage of smoking-negative samples (55% vs. 17%) and longer duration of continuous abstinence (7.7 vs. 2.4 days) during the 2 week quit attempt than noncontingent participants, respectively. Bupropion did not significantly influence abstinence outcomes. Results from this randomized clinical trial support the efficacy of contingency management interventions in promoting initial smoking abstinence in this challenging population.

(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for American Psychological Association Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk