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Scand J Psychol. 2010 Oct;51(5):418-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2009.00794.x.

Cross-cultural validation of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) in Iran.

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  • 1Shiraz University, Department of Educational Psychology, IranUniversity of Tromsø, Department of Psychology, NorwayNorwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Psychology, Trondheim, Norway.


Jowkar, B., Friborg, O. & Hjemdal, O. (2010). Cross-cultural validation of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) in Iran. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51, 418-425. Resilience, as an ability to withstand and rebound from crisis and adversity, is becoming an increasingly popular concept in research on intervention and prevention of mental health. The present study examined psychometric properties of a Persian version of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), a scale intended to measure protective factors presumed to enhance resilience. The participants were 373 university undergraduate students, as well as 30 pairs of run-away girls and a matched control group. A confirmatory factor analysis verified the Norwegian five-factor structure. All subscale scores, personal competence, social competence, family cohesion, social resources and structured style, had good reliability. The convergent validity of the RSA was supported by showing positive associations with another resilience scale, i.e., a Persian version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Predictive validity of the RSA was supported, as well, by significantly differentiating between girls who had run away from home and a matched control group. The results indicate that the RSA may be a valid and reliable scale for the assessment of resilience protective resources in an Iranian population.

© 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.


Resilience; cross-cultural validation; factor analysis; protective factors; scale

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