Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Proc Biol Sci. 2010 May 22;277(1687):1531-8. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2009.2324. Epub 2010 Feb 3.

The twilight zone: ambient light levels trigger activity in primitive ants.

Author information

  • 1ARC Centre of Excellence in Vision Science and Centre for Visual Sciences, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.


Many animals become active during twilight, a narrow time window where the properties of the visual environment are dramatically different from both day and night. Despite the fact that many animals including mammals, reptiles, birds and insects become active in this specific temporal niche, we do not know what cues trigger this activity. To identify the onset of specific temporal niches, animals could anticipate the timing of regular events or directly measure environmental variables. We show that the Australian bull ant, Myrmecia pyriformis, starts foraging only during evening twilight throughout the year. The onset occurs neither at a specific temperature nor at a specific time relative to sunset, but at a specific ambient light intensity. Foraging onset occurs later when light intensities at sunset are brighter than normal or earlier when light intensities at sunset are darker than normal. By modifying ambient light intensity experimentally, we provide clear evidence that ants indeed measure light levels and do not rely on an internal rhythm to begin foraging. We suggest that the reason for restricting the foraging onset to twilight and measuring light intensity to trigger activity is to optimize the trade-off between predation risk and ease of navigation.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk