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BMC Bioinformatics. 2010 Jan 18;11 Suppl 1:S24. doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-11-S1-S24.

HORI: a web server to compute Higher Order Residue Interactions in protein structures.

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  • 1National Centre for Biological Sciences (TIFR), GKVK Campus, Bellary Road, Bangalore, 560065, India.



Folding of a protein into its three dimensional structure is influenced by both local and global interactions within a protein. Higher order residue interactions, like pairwise, triplet and quadruplet ones, play a vital role in attaining the stable conformation of the protein structure. It is generally agreed that higher order interactions make significant contribution to the potential energy landscape of folded proteins and therefore it is important to identify them to estimate their contributions to overall stability of a protein structure.


We developed HORI [Higher order residue interactions in proteins], a web server for the calculation of global and local higher order interactions in protein structures. The basic algorithm of HORI is designed based on the classical concept of four-body nearest-neighbour propensities of amino-acid residues. It has been proved that higher order residue interactions up to the level of quadruple interactions plays a major role in the three-dimensional structure of proteins and is an important feature that can be used in protein structure analysis.


HORI server will be a useful resource for the structural bioinformatics community to perform analysis on protein structures based on higher order residue interactions. HORI server is a highly interactive web server designed in three modules that enables the user to analyse higher order residue interactions in protein structures. HORI server is available from the URL:

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