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Surg Clin North Am. 2010 Feb;90(1):17-32, Table of Contents. doi: 10.1016/j.suc.2009.10.005.

Diagnosis and management of symptomatic hemorrhoids.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North Worcester, MA 01655, USA.


Hemorrhoidal disease is a common problem that is managed by various physicians, ranging from primary care providers to surgeons. This article reviews the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and updated treatment of hemorrhoids, including nonoperative options, office-based procedures, and surgical interventions from standard excision to stapled hemorrhoidopexy and Doppler-guided ligation. The article also covers complications and provides guidance for special circumstances, such as pregnancy, hemorrhoidal crisis, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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