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Immune Netw. 2009 Apr;9(2):53-7. doi: 10.4110/in.2009.9.2.53. Epub 2009 Apr 30.

Transmembrane adaptor proteins positively regulating the activation of lymphocytes.

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  • 1Department of Life Science, Ewha Womans' University, Seoul 120-750, Korea.


Engagement of the immunoreceptors initiates signaling cascades resulting in lymphocyte activation and differentiation to effector cells, which are essential for the elimination of pathogens from the body. For the transduction of these immunoreceptor-mediated signals, several linker proteins termed transmembrane adaptor proteins (TRAPs) were shown to be required. TRAPs serve as platforms for the assembly and membrane targeting of the specific signaling proteins. Among seven TRAPs identified so far, LAT and LIME were shown to act as a positive regulator in TCR-mediated signaling pathways. In this review, we will discuss the functions of LAT and LIME in modulating T cell development, activation and differentiation.


LAT (Linker for activation of T cells); LIME (Lck-interacting transmembrane adaptor protein); TRAP (transmembrane adaptor protein); lymphocyte

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