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PLoS One. 2010 Jan 21;5(1):e8830. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008830.

Application of gene network analysis techniques identifies AXIN1/PDIA2 and endoglin haplotypes associated with bicuspid aortic valve.

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  • 1MCRI Center for Translational Genomics, Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Abstract

Bicuspid Aortic Valve (BAV) is a highly heritable congenital heart defect. The low frequency of BAV (1% of general population) limits our ability to perform genome-wide association studies. We present the application of four a priori SNP selection techniques, reducing the multiple-testing penalty by restricting analysis to SNPs relevant to BAV in a genome-wide SNP dataset from a cohort of 68 BAV probands and 830 control subjects. Two knowledge-based approaches, CANDID and STRING, were used to systematically identify BAV genes, and their SNPs, from the published literature, microarray expression studies and a genome scan. We additionally tested Functionally Interpolating SNPs (fitSNPs) present on the array; the fourth consisted of SNPs selected by Random Forests, a machine learning approach. These approaches reduced the multiple testing penalty by lowering the fraction of the genome probed to 0.19% of the total, while increasing the likelihood of studying SNPs within relevant BAV genes and pathways. Three loci were identified by CANDID, STRING, and fitSNPS. A haplotype within the AXIN1-PDIA2 locus (p-value of 2.926x10(-06)) and a haplotype within the Endoglin gene (p-value of 5.881x10(-04)) were found to be strongly associated with BAV. The Random Forests approach identified a SNP on chromosome 3 in association with BAV (p-value 5.061x10(-06)). The results presented here support an important role for genetic variants in BAV and provide support for additional studies in well-powered cohorts. Further, these studies demonstrate that leveraging existing expression and genomic data in the context of GWAS studies can identify biologically relevant genes and pathways associated with a congenital heart defect.

PMID:
20098615
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2809109
Free PMC Article
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