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J Emerg Med. 2011 Mar;40(3):340-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2009.10.024. Epub 2010 Jan 25.

Firework-related injuries in Tehran's Persian Wednesday Eve Festival (Chaharshanbe Soori).

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  • 1Department of Surgery, Amir Alam Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.



Fireworks are the leading cause of injuries such as burns and amputations during the Persian Wednesday Eve Festival (Chaharshanbeh Soori).


This study was designed to explore the age of the high-risk population, the type of fireworks most frequently causing injury, the pattern of injury, and the frequency of permanent disabilities.


This cohort study was performed by Tehran Emergency Medical Services at different medical centers all around Tehran, Iran, in individuals referred due to firework-related injuries during 1 month surrounding the festival in the year 2007. The following information was extracted from the patients' medical records: demographic data, the type of fireworks causing injury, the pattern and severity of the injury, the pre-hospital and hospital care provided for the patient, and the patient's condition at the time of discharge. In addition, information on the severity of the remaining disability was recorded 8 months after the injury.


There were 197 patients enrolled in the study with a mean age of 20.94 ± 11.31 years; the majority of them were male. Fuse-detonated noisemakers and homemade grenades were the most frequent causes of injury. Hand injury was reported in 39.8% of the cases. Amputation and long-term disability were found in 6 and 12 cases, respectively. None of the patients died during the study period.


The fireworks used during a Chaharshanbe Soori ceremony were responsible for a considerable number of injuries to different parts of the body, and some of them led to permanent disabilities.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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