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J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2010 Mar;196(3):165-79. doi: 10.1007/s00359-010-0504-x. Epub 2010 Jan 22.

Anatomy and physics of the exceptional sensitivity of dolphin hearing (Odontoceti: Cetacea).

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  • 1Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 1, P.O. Box 65, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.


During the past 50 years, the high acoustic sensitivity and the echolocation behavior of dolphins and other small odontocetes have been studied thoroughly. However, understanding has been scarce as to how the dolphin cochlea is stimulated by high frequency echoes, and likewise regarding the ear mechanics affecting dolphin audiograms. The characteristic impedance of mammalian soft tissues is similar to that of water, and thus no radical refractions of sound, nor reflections of sound, can be expected at the water/soft tissue interfaces. Consequently, a sound-collecting terrestrial pinna and an outer ear canal serve little purpose in underwater hearing. Additionally, compared to terrestrial mammals whose middle ear performs an impedance match from air to the cochlea, the impedance match performed by the odontocete middle ear needs to be reversed to perform an opposite match from water to the cochlea. In this paper, we discuss anatomical adaptations of dolphins: a lower jaw collecting sound, thus replacing the terrestrial outer ear pinna, and a thin and large tympanic bone plate replacing the tympanic membrane of terrestrial mammals. The paper describes the lower jaw anatomy and hypothetical middle ear mechanisms explaining both the high sensitivity and the converted acoustic impedance match.

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