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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010 Apr;65(4):661-5. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkp504. Epub 2010 Jan 20.

Spread of plasmids containing the bla(VIM-1) and bla(CTX-M) genes and the qnr determinant in Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca isolates.

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  • 1Servei de Microbiologia, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.



We describe 12 VIM-1-producing strains (7 Enterobacter cloacae, 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 3 clonal Klebsiella oxytoca strains) detected among clinically relevant Enterobacteriaceae isolates from routine cultures at the Hospital del Mar (Barcelona, Spain) from December 2006 to May 2007.


Susceptibility to carbapenems was evaluated with the MicroScan system. beta-Lactamases were identified by PCR and sequencing. Clonal relationships between the isolates were analysed by PFGE. Transferability of the enzymes was tested by conjugation. Plasmid characterization was performed by PCR-based replicon typing and PFGE with S1 nuclease digestion of whole genomic DNA. The PFGE gels were then transferred and hybridized.


The disc diffusion method correctly identified five of the seven E. cloacae isolates as intermediate or resistant strains. All isolates produced the VIM-1 enzyme. Three E. cloacae and three K. oxytoca strains were also CTX-M-9-producing strains, and one E. cloacae was also a CTX-M-3-producing strain. The plasmids carrying the bla(VIM) gene, of unknown incompatibility group, had a size of approximately 75 kb (eight strains) or 40 kb (three strains) and also contained the qnrS and the aac(6')-Ib-cr genes. In the remaining strain the bla(VIM-1) gene was found in an HI2 plasmid of 290 kb together with bla(CTX-M-9), qnrA, qnrS and the aac(6')-Ib-cr genes.


The results showed a linkage between the bla(VIM-1) and the qnrS and the aac(6')-Ib-cr genes, and between the bla(CTX-M-9) and the qnrA genes.

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