Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Biol Chem. 2010 Apr 23;285(17):12629-37. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.073320. Epub 2010 Jan 12.

Exogenous Nef is an inhibitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production and macrophage apoptosis.

Author information

  • 1Department of Chemistry, Bose Institute, 93/1 APC Road, Kolkata 700009, India.


Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) impairs tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-mediated macrophage apoptosis induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). HIV Nef protein plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AIDS. We have tested the hypothesis that exogenous Nef is a factor that inhibits TNF-alpha production/apoptosis in macrophages infected with Mtb. We demonstrate that Mtb and Nef individually trigger TNF-alpha production in macrophages. However, TNF-alpha production is dampened when the two are present simultaneously, probably through cross-regulation of the individual signaling pathways leading to activation of the TNF-alpha promoter. Mtb-induced TNF-alpha production is abrogated upon mutation of the Ets, Egr, Sp1, CRE, or AP1 binding sites on the TNF-alpha promoter, whereas Nef-mediated promoter activation depends only on the CRE and AP1 binding sites, pointing to differences in the mechanisms of activation of the promoter. Mtb-dependent promoter activation depends on the mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase ASK1 and on MEK/ERK signaling. Nef inhibits ASK1/p38 MAPK-dependent Mtb-induced TNF-alpha production probably by inhibiting binding of ATF2 to the TNF-alpha promoter. It also inhibits MEK/ERK-dependent Mtb-induced binding of FosB to the promoter. Nef-driven TNF-alpha production occurs in an ASK1-independent, Rac1/PAK1/p38 MAPK-dependent, and MEK/ERK-independent manner. The signaling pathways used by Mtb and Nef to trigger TNF-alpha production are therefore distinctly different. In addition to attenuating Mtb-dependent TNF-alpha promoter activation, Nef also reduces Mtb-dependent TNF-alpha mRNA stability probably through its ability to inhibit ASK1/p38 MAPK signaling. These results provide new insight into how HIV Nef probably exacerbates tuberculosis infection by virtue of its ability to dampen Mtb-induced TNF-alpha production.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk