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Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010 Mar;298(3):R707-12. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00762.2009. Epub 2010 Jan 6.

NOX2 is the primary source of angiotensin II-induced superoxide in the macula densa.

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  • 1Department of Physiology & Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA.


Macula densa (MD)-mediated regulation of renal hemodynamics via tubuloglomerular feedback is regulated by interactions between factors such as superoxide (O(2)(-)) and angiotensin II (ANG II). We have reported that NaCl-induced O(2)(-) in the MD is produced by the NOX2 isoform of NADPH oxidase (NOX); however, the source of ANG II-induced O(2)(-) in MD is unknown. Thus we determined the pathways by which ANG II increased O(2)(-) in the MD by measuring O(2)(-) in ANG II-treated MMDD1 cells, a MD-like cell line. ANG II caused MMDD1 O(2)(-) levels to increase by more than twofold (P < 0.01). This increase was blocked by losartan (AT(1) receptor blocker) but not PD-123319 (AT(2) receptor antagonist). Apocynin (a NOX inhibitor) decreased O(2)(-) by 86% (P < 0.01), whereas oxypurinol (a xanthine oxidase inhibitor) and NS-398 (a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor) had no significant effect. The NOX-dependent increase in O(2)(-) was due to the NOX2 isoform; a short interfering (si)RNA against NOX2 blunted ANG II-induced increases in O(2)(-), whereas the NOX4/siRNA did not. Finally, we found that inhibiting the Rac1 subunit of NOX blunted ANG II-induced O(2)(-) production in NOX4/siRNA-treated cells but did not further decrease it in NOX2/siRNA-treated cells. Our results indicate that ANG II stimulates O(2)(-) production in the MD primarily via AT(1)-dependent activation of NOX2. Rac1 is required for the full activation of NOX2. This pathway may be an important component of ANG II enhancement of tubuloglomerular feedback.

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