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Opt Express. 2009 Dec 7;17(25):23284-9. doi: 10.1364/OE.17.023284.

Directionally controlled 3D ferroelectric single crystal growth in LaBGeO5 glass by femtosecond laser irradiation.

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  • 1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, 5 Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA.


Laser-fabrication of complex, highly oriented three-dimensional ferroelectric single crystal architecture with straight lines and bends is demonstrated in lanthanum borogermanate model glass using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser. Scanning micro-Raman microscopy shows that the c-axis of the ferroelectric crystal is aligned with the writing direction even after bending. A gradual rather than an abrupt transition is observed for the changing lattice orientation through bends up to approximately 14 degrees. Thus the single crystal character of the line is preserved along the bend through lattice straining rather than formation of a grain boundary.

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