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Opt Express. 2009 Dec 7;17(25):22484-90. doi: 10.1364/OE.17.022484.

Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator.

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  • 1Kotura Inc., 2630 Corporate Place, Monterey Park, CA, 91754, USA.


We present a high-speed silicon optical modulator with a low V(pp) (peak-to-peak driving voltage) and ultralow energy consumption based on a microring resonator, with the refractive index modulation achieved by electric-field-induced carrier depletion in a reverse-biased lateral pn diode embedded in the ring structure. With a V(pp) of 2 V, we demonstrate a silicon modulator with a 3 dB bandwidth of 11 GHz, a modulation depth of 6.5 dB together with an insertion loss of 2 dB, ultralow energy consumption of 50 fJ per bit, and a small device active area of approximately 1000 microm(2).

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