Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Nov;117(11):1697-701. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0900572. Epub 2009 Jun 15.

Chronic fine and coarse particulate exposure, mortality, and coronary heart disease in the Nurses' Health Study.

Author information

  • 1South Carolina Cancer Prevention and Control Program and Department of Epidemiology, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29201, USA.



The relationship of fine particulate matter < 2.5 microm in diameter (PM(2.5)) air pollution with mortality and cardiovascular disease is well established, with more recent long-term studies reporting larger effect sizes than earlier long-term studies. Some studies have suggested the coarse fraction, particles between 2.5 and 10 microm (PM(10-2.5)), may also be important. With respect to mortality and cardiovascular events, questions remain regarding the relative strength of effect sizes for chronic exposure to fine and coarse particles.


We examined the relationship of chronic PM(2.5) and PM(10-2.5) exposures with all-cause mortality and fatal and nonfatal incident coronary heart disease (CHD), adjusting for time-varying covariates.


The current study included women from the Nurses' Health Study living in metropolitan areas of the northeastern and midwestern United States. Follow-up was from 1992 to 2002. We used geographic information systems-based spatial smoothing models to estimate monthly exposures at each participant's residence.


We found increased risk of all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR), 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.54] and fatal CHD (HR = 2.02; 95% CI, 1.07-3.78) associated with each 10-microg/m(3) increase in annual PM(2.5) exposure. The association between fatal CHD and PM(10-2.5) was weaker.


Our findings contribute to growing evidence that chronic PM(2.5) exposure is associated with risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.


air pollution; cardiovascular disease; mortality; particulate matter

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk