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Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Nov;117(11):1697-701. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0900572. Epub 2009 Jun 15.

Chronic fine and coarse particulate exposure, mortality, and coronary heart disease in the Nurses' Health Study.

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  • 1South Carolina Cancer Prevention and Control Program and Department of Epidemiology, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29201, USA. rpuett@mailbox.sc.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The relationship of fine particulate matter < 2.5 microm in diameter (PM(2.5)) air pollution with mortality and cardiovascular disease is well established, with more recent long-term studies reporting larger effect sizes than earlier long-term studies. Some studies have suggested the coarse fraction, particles between 2.5 and 10 microm (PM(10-2.5)), may also be important. With respect to mortality and cardiovascular events, questions remain regarding the relative strength of effect sizes for chronic exposure to fine and coarse particles.

OBJECTIVES:

We examined the relationship of chronic PM(2.5) and PM(10-2.5) exposures with all-cause mortality and fatal and nonfatal incident coronary heart disease (CHD), adjusting for time-varying covariates.

METHODS:

The current study included women from the Nurses' Health Study living in metropolitan areas of the northeastern and midwestern United States. Follow-up was from 1992 to 2002. We used geographic information systems-based spatial smoothing models to estimate monthly exposures at each participant's residence.

RESULTS:

We found increased risk of all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR), 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.54] and fatal CHD (HR = 2.02; 95% CI, 1.07-3.78) associated with each 10-microg/m(3) increase in annual PM(2.5) exposure. The association between fatal CHD and PM(10-2.5) was weaker.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings contribute to growing evidence that chronic PM(2.5) exposure is associated with risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

KEYWORDS:

air pollution; cardiovascular disease; mortality; particulate matter

PMID:
20049120
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2801178
Free PMC Article
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