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Indian J Pharmacol. 2008 Aug;40(4):137-43. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.43158.

Role of pharmacogenomics in drug discovery and development.

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  • 1Department of Pharmacology, JIPMER, Puducherry, India.

Abstract

Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics are two major emerging trends in medical sciences, which influence the success of drug development and therapeutics. In current times, though pharmacogenetic studies are being done extensively for research, its application for drug development needs to get started on a large scale. The major determinants of success of a new drug compound, viz safety and efficacy, have become more predictable, with the advent of pharmacogenetic studies. There is a need felt for pharmacogenomic studies, where the effects of multiple genes are assessed with the study of entire genome.Pharmacogenetic studies can be used at various stages of drug development. The effect of drug target polymorphisms on drug response can be assessed and identified. In clinical studies, pharmacogenetic tests can be used for stratification of patients based on their genotype, which corresponds to their metabolizing capacity. This prevents the occurrence of severe adverse drug reactions and helps in better outcome of clinical trials. This can also reduce attrition of drug compounds. Further, the variations in drug response can be better studied with the wider application of pharmacogenomic methods like genome wide scans, haplotype analysis and candidate gene approaches. The cost of pharmacogenetic testing has become very low, with the advent of newer high throughput genotyping systems. However, the cost of pharmacogenomic methods continues to be very high. As the treatment with several drugs is being more and more pharmacogeneticaly guided (e.g. warfarin and irinotecan), the FDA has laid down guidelines for pharmaceutical firms regarding submission of pharmacogenetic data for their drug products in labelling.

KEYWORDS:

Drug; genotype; pharmaceuticals; pharmacogenetics; pharmacogenomics

PMID:
20040945
[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC2792612
Free PMC Article

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