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Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Mar;34(3):462-71. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2009.254. Epub 2009 Dec 22.

Acute effects of gastric bypass versus gastric restrictive surgery on beta-cell function and insulinotropic hormones in severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes.

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  • 1Endocrinology and Metabolism Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.



Hyperglycemia resolves quickly after bariatric surgery, but the underlying mechanism and the most effective type of surgery remains unclear.


To examine glucose metabolism and beta-cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after two types of bariatric intervention; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and gastric restrictive (GR) surgery.


Prospective, nonrandomized, repeated-measures, 4-week, longitudinal clinical trial.


In all, 16 T2DM patients (9 males and 7 females, 52+/-14 years, 47+/-9 kg m(-2), HbA1c 7.2+/-1.1%) undergoing either RYGB (N=9) or GR (N=7) surgery.


Glucose, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity at baseline, and 1 and 4 weeks post-surgery, using hyperglycemic clamps and C-peptide modeling kinetics; glucose, insulin secretion and gut-peptide responses to mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) at baseline and 4 weeks post-surgery.


At 1 week post-surgery, both groups experienced a similar weight loss and reduction in fasting glucose (P<0.01). However, insulin sensitivity increased only after RYGB, (P<0.05). At 4 weeks post-surgery, weight loss remained similar for both groups, but fasting glucose was normalized only after RYGB (95+/-3 mg 100 ml(-1)). Insulin sensitivity improved after RYGB (P<0.01) and did not change with GR, whereas the disposition index remained unchanged after RYGB and increased 30% after GR (P=0.10). The MMTT elicited a robust increase in insulin secretion, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels and beta-cell sensitivity to glucose only after RYGB (P<0.05).


RYGB provides a more rapid improvement in glucose regulation compared with GR. This improvement is accompanied by enhanced insulin sensitivity and beta-cell responsiveness to glucose, in part because of an incretin effect.

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