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J Consult Clin Psychol. 1991 Feb;59(1):100-14.

Behavioral, cognitive, and pharmacological treatments of panic disorder with agoraphobia: critique and synthesis.

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  • 1Pennsylvania State University, Department of Psychology, University Park 16802.


Theoretical, methodologic, and clinical research issues pertaining to these treatments are examined as are their strengths, limitations, and possible interactions. Attrition, outcome, and maintenance effects are compared. Composite indices of clinically significant improvement, endstate functioning, and longitudinal adjustment are presented. The article also highlights emerging models, theoretical advances, and promising interventions. Advantages and limitations of current treatments are discussed, with recommendations for future research. It is concluded that significant advances have been made in the conceptualization and treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia.

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