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N Engl J Med. 2009 Dec 10;361(24):2309-17. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0904971.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for sickle cell disease.

Author information

  • 1Molecular and Clinical Hematology Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is curative in children with sickle cell disease, but in adults the procedure is unduly toxic. Graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are additional barriers to its success. We performed nonmyeloablative stem-cell transplantation in adults with sickle cell disease.

METHODS:

Ten adults (age range, 16 to 45 years) with severe sickle cell disease underwent nonmyeloablative transplantation with CD34+ peripheral-blood stem cells, mobilized by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which were obtained from HLA-matched siblings. The patients received 300 cGy of total-body irradiation plus alemtuzumab before transplantation, and sirolimus was administered afterward.

RESULTS:

All 10 patients were alive at a median follow-up of 30 months after transplantation (range, 15 to 54). Nine patients had long-term, stable donor lymphohematopoietic engraftment at levels that sufficed to reverse the sickle cell disease phenotype. Mean (+/-SE) donor-recipient chimerism for T cells (CD3+) and myeloid cells (CD14+15+) was 53.3+/-8.6% and 83.3+/-10.3%, respectively, in the nine patients whose grafts were successful. Hemoglobin values before transplantation and at the last follow-up assessment were 9.0+/-0.3 and 12.6+/-0.5 g per deciliter, respectively. Serious adverse events included the narcotic-withdrawal syndrome and sirolimus-associated pneumonitis and arthralgia. Neither acute nor chronic GVHD developed in any patient.

CONCLUSIONS:

A protocol for nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation that includes total-body irradiation and treatment with alemtuzumab and sirolimus can achieve stable, mixed donor-recipient chimerism and reverse the sickle cell phenotype. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00061568.)

2009 Massachusetts Medical Society

Comment in

PMID:
20007560
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3627532
Free PMC Article

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