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Transplant Proc. 2009 Dec;41(10):4023-35. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2009.11.001.

Current surgical management of hilar and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: the role of resection and orthotopic liver transplantation.

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  • 1Pfleger Liver Institute, Dumont-UCLA Liver Cancer and Transplant Centers, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-7054, USA.


Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a rare but devastating malignancy that presents late, is notoriously difficult to diagnose, and is associated with a high mortality. Surgical resection is the only chance for cure or long-term survival. The treatment of CCA has remained challenging because of the lack of effective adjuvant therapy, aggressive nature of the disease, and critical location of the tumor in close proximity to vital structures such as the hepatic artery and the portal vein. Moreover, the operative approach is dictated by the location of the tumor and the presence of underlying liver disease. During the past 4 decades, the operative management of CCA has evolved from a treatment modality that primarily aimed at palliation to curative intent with an aggressive surgical approach to R0 resection and total hepatectomy followed by orthotopic liver transplantation.

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