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Curr Biol. 2009 Dec 29;19(24):2091-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.10.039. Epub 2009 Dec 3.

Cytoplasmic ATM in neurons modulates synaptic function.

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  • 1Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.


ATM is a PI 3-kinase involved in DNA double-strand break repair. ATM deficiency leads to ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), a syndrome of cancer susceptibility, hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation, immune deficiency, and sterility [1, 2]-phenotypes that can straightforwardly be attributed to a defective response to DNA damage. Yet patients with A-T also suffer from ataxia, speech defects, and abnormal body movements [3-5]-neurological phenotypes whose origins remain largely unexplained. Compounding the discordance, Atm mutations in mouse interfere with DNA repair but have only mild neurological symptoms [6-9], suggesting that the link between DNA damage and the death of neurons can be broken [10-12]. We find that in neurons, ATM protein has a substantial cytoplasmic distribution. We show that in Atm(tm1Awb) mice, hippocampal long-term potentiation is significantly reduced, as is the rate of spontaneous vesicular dye release, suggesting a functional importance of cytoplasmic ATM. In the cytoplasm, ATM forms a complex with two synaptic vesicle proteins, VAMP2 and synapsin-I, both of which must be phosphorylated to bind ATM. Also, cytoplasmic ATM physically associates with the homologous PI 3-kinase, ATR. The neurological symptoms of ataxia-telangiectasia may thus result from defective nonnuclear functions of ATM not associated with DNA repair.

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