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Ann Surg Oncol. 2010 Feb;17(2):544-51. doi: 10.1245/s10434-009-0812-y. Epub 2009 Dec 1.

Prognostic factors influencing long-term survival of patients undergoing nephron-sparing surgery for nonmetastatic renal-cell carcinoma (RCC) with imperative indications.

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  • 1Department of Urology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.



We assessed the effect of T stage, Fuhrman's grade, multifocality, bilaterality, positive surgical margins, and synchronism of bilateral tumors on cancer-specific survival of patients with nonmetastatic renal-cell carcinoma (RCC) undergoing nephron-sparing surgery for imperative indications.


We retrospectively analyzed 168 patients who underwent nephron-sparing surgery for imperative RCC indications between 1974 and 2002. A total of 85 patients had bilateral RCCs; in 27 patients, the tumors were multifocal. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to assess the features associated with cancer-specific survival.


The median follow-up was 99 months (range, 2-326 months). Patients were followed until January 2008. A total of 52 patients died of their cancer during follow-up. Multivariate analyses of the total group only revealed Fuhrman's grade 3 (hazard ratio [HR] 2.94) and bilateral occurrence of RCC (HR 1.82) as independent prognostic factors. In a subgroup analysis of patients with bilateral occurrence of RCC, we observed a tendency toward positive surgical margins (HR 2.89, P = 0.08) being another negative prognostic factor. There was no difference in cancer-specific survival between patients with synchronous and metachronous bilateral RCC presence (HR 1.08).


Fuhrman's grade 3 and bilateral occurrence of RCC were the only statistically significant prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival in patients undergoing nephron-sparing surgery for imperative indications for nonmetastatic RCC. The presence of sporadic multifocal tumors and the synchronous occurrence of bilateral tumors have no influence on cancer-specific survival, while positive surgical margins may have an impact in the subset of patients with bilateral RCC.

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