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Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2010 Jan;21(1):53-65. doi: 10.1016/

Immunostimulants for malignant gliomas.

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  • 1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, 400 Parnassus Avenue, A808, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.


Several immunostimulant approaches have been studied in the treatment of gliomas. The advent of recombinant DNA technology led to a nonspecific immunostimulation via systemic administration of cytokines. Recently, in attempts to more closely mimic their natural activity, cytokines have been delivered by implanting genetically transduced cells or by using in vivo gene transfer techniques. The latest efforts have focused on immunostimulatory agents that act directly on antigen-presenting cells and effector cells of the immune system via pattern recognition receptors. Combining these strategies with more than one mode of immunotherapy may provide better clinical results.

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