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Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2009 Dec;36(4):907-24, xii. doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2009.10.010.

Understanding and treating premenstrual dysphoric disorder: an update for the women's health practitioner.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry Women's College Hospital, Room 944C, Ontario, Canada.


Up to 7% of women report premenstrual symptoms severe enough to impair daily function, and are said to suffer from premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Although PMDD is predominately regarded as a biologically based condition, sociocultural factors, and particularly life stress, past sexual abuse, and cultural socialization, likely interact with hormonal changes. This integrative model has implications for etiology and treatment of PMDD.

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