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Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2009 Dec;38(4):719-38. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2009.08.004.

Etiology and treatment of hypogonadism in adolescents.

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  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, 46202, USA.


Adequate functioning at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is necessary for normal gonadal development and subsequent sex steroid production. Deficiencies at any level of the axis can lead to a hypogonadal state. The causes of hypogonadism are heterogeneous and may involve any level of the reproductive system. This review discusses various causes of hypogonadism, describes the evaluation of hypogonadal states, and outlines treatment options for the induction of puberty in affected adolescents. Whereas some conditions are clearly delineated, the exact etiology and underlying pathogenesis of many disorders is unknown.

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