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Peptides. 2010 Feb;31(2):357-69. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2009.11.019. Epub 2009 Nov 26.

Ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in gastric X/A-like cells: role as regulators of food intake and body weight.

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  • 1CURE: Digestive Diseases Research Center and Neurobiology of Stress, Digestive Diseases Division, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles and Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA. astengel@mednet.ucla.edu

Abstract

Numerous peptides released from endocrine cells in the intestinal mucosa were established early on to be involved in the physiological regulation of food intake with a prominent role in termination of food ingestion when nutrients pass along the intestinal tract. Recently, peptides released from X/A-like endocrine cells of the gastric oxyntic mucosa were recognized as additional key players in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure. Gastric X/A-like cells release the octanoylated peptide, ghrelin, the only known peripherally produced hormone stimulating food intake through interaction with growth hormone secretagogue 1a receptor (GHS-R1a). Additionally, non-octanoylated (des-acyl) ghrelin present in the circulation at higher levels than ghrelin is currently discussed as potential modulator of food intake by opposing ghrelin's action independent from GHS-R1a although the functional significance remains to be established. Obestatin, a ghrelin-associated peptide was initially reported as anorexigenic modulator of ghrelin's orexigenic action. However, subsequent reports did not support this contention. Interesting is the recent identification of nesfatin-1, a peptide derived from the nucleobindin2 gene prominently expressed in gastric X/A-like cells in different vesicles than ghrelin. Circulating nesfatin-1 levels vary with metabolic state and peripheral or central injection inhibits dark phase feeding in rodents. Overall, these data point to an important role of gastric X/A-like cells in food intake regulation through the expression of the orexigenic peptide ghrelin along with des-acyl ghrelin and nesfatin-1 capable of reducing food intake upon exogenous injection although their mechanisms of action and functional significance remain to be established.

(c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID:
19944123
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3166546
Free PMC Article
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