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Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2010 Feb;88(2):84-93. doi: 10.1002/bdra.20639.

Testing reported associations of genetic risk factors for oral clefts in a large Irish study population.

Author information

  • 1Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. carterto@mail.nih.gov

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Suggestive, but not conclusive, studies implicate many genetic variants in oral cleft etiology. We used a large, ethnically homogenous study population to test whether reported associations between nonsyndromic oral clefts and 12 genes (CLPTM1, CRISPLD2, FGFR2, GABRB3, GLI2, IRF6, PTCH1, RARA, RYK, SATB2, SUMO1, TGFA) could be confirmed.

METHODS:

Thirty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in exons, splice sites, and conserved non-coding regions were studied in 509 patients with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP), 383 with cleft palate only (CP), 838 mothers and 719 fathers of patients with oral clefts, and 902 controls from Ireland. Case-control and family-based statistical tests were performed using isolated oral clefts for the main analyses.

RESULTS:

In case-control comparisons, the minor allele of PTCH1 A562A (rs2066836) was associated with reduced odds of CLP (odds ratios [OR], 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.64 for homozygotes), whereas the minor allele of PTCH1 L1315P (rs357564) was associated with increased odds of CLP (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.07-1.74 for heterozygotes; and OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.09-2.24 for homozygotes). The minor allele of one SUMO1 SNP, rs3769817 located in intron 2, was associated with increased odds of CP (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.06-1.99 for heterozygotes). Transmission disequilibrium was observed for the minor allele of TGFA V159V (rs2166975) which was over-transmitted to CP cases (p = 0.041).

CONCLUSIONS:

For 10 of the 12 genes, this is the largest candidate gene study of nonsyndromic oral clefts to date. The findings provide further evidence that PTCH1, SUMO1, and TGFA contribute to nonsyndromic oral clefts.

PMID:
19937600
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3503531
Free PMC Article
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