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Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009 Dec;10(17):2787-99. doi: 10.1517/14656560903369363.

Current treatment of atypical mycobacteriosis.

Author information

  • 1Department of Clinical Microbiology, Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Av. Reyes Católicos 2, 28040-Madrid, Spain. jestebanmoreno@gmail.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Atypical mycobacteria are a heterogeneous group of organisms that are of increasing importance because of the growing number of infections they cause. This rising rate of infection is due mainly to the increase in the number of susceptible (and especially immunosuppressed) patients.

OBJECTIVE:

To revise the currently used treatment schemes of the most commonly isolated atypical mycobacteria.

METHODS:

Literature review using reference books and PubMed with specific keywords for each mycobacteria.

RESULTS/CONCLUSION:

The first important step in the management of atypical mycobacteria is to recognize the true infections caused by these organisms. The treatment required varies according to species. Well-characterized combinations exist for most common isolates, with the use of first-line antituberculous drugs (isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol), clarithromycin, aminoglycosides and/or quinolones for slowly growing species (Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium xenopi, Mycobacterium ulcerans, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium lentiflavum, Mycobacterium malmoense) and macrolides, quinolones, amikacin and other antibiotics for rapidly growing mycobacteria (Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium fortuitum). Surgical therapy is also important for some species (Mycobacterium ulcerans, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum) and for localized infections. The treatment of uncommon species is not well defined and is determined by the results of in vitro tests of individual strains. Because of the increasing number of resistant strains, new antibiotics need to be used for the treatment of these strains.

PMID:
19929702
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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