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BJU Int. 2010 Jun;105(12):1680-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2009.09055.x. Epub 2009 Nov 13.

Effect of fluid management on fluid intake and urge incontinence in a trial for overactive bladder in women.

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  • 1UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Urology, Dallas, TX 75390-9110, USA.



To explore whether instruction in fluid management resulted in changes in fluid intake and incontinence over a 10-week study period in women with urinary urge incontinence (UUI), as fluid management might be a critical strategy in treating this condition.


In the 'Behaviour Enhances Drug Reduction of Incontinence' trial, women with predominant UUI were randomized to daily treatment with tolterodine or tolterodine combined with behavioural therapies, among which were individualized instructions on fluid management. Patients in both groups received general fluid management instructions, while in the drug + behaviour arm, those with excessive urine output (>2.1 L/day) had additional individualized instruction during each of four study visits to learn behavioural strategies. Variables measured at baseline and at 10 weeks were type of incontinence, using the Medical, Epidemiological, and Social Aspects of Aging questionnaire, severity of incontinence by number of incontinence episodes based on a 7-day diary, number of voids/24 h (F(24)), urgency rating, 24-h fluid intake (I(24)) and 24-h volume voided (V(24)), volume average (V(avg)), pad use, bothersomeness of UUI (Urogenital Distress Inventory and Overactive Bladder questionnaire), and quality of life (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 and Short-Form-12).


Leakage episodes/24 h, V(24), I(24) and average urgency ratings all significantly decreased from baseline to 10 weeks (P < 0.001 for each). V(avg) increased (P < 0.001), as did voids/L intake (P = 0.01). None of the changes in diary variable outcomes differed by treatment group after accounting for these changes between baseline and 10 weeks. In a multivariable model, treatment group was not associated with change in V(24) from baseline to 10 weeks (P = 0.81), but the difference in the number of accidents/diary day, F(24), I(24), and average voids/day each were positively related with the change in V(24) (P < 0.001 for each). Patients had a response to fluid management instructions; the decrease in the percentage of women with a V(24) of >2.1 L between baseline and follow-up was statistically significant (P = 0.01 McNemar's test).


General fluid instructions can contribute to the reduction in UUI symptoms for women taking anticholinergic medications, but additional individualized instructions along with other behavioural therapies did little to further improve the outcome.

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