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FASEB J. 2010 Mar;24(3):769-77. doi: 10.1096/fj.09-136994. Epub 2009 Nov 9.

Role of androgens and the androgen receptor in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasion of prostate cancer cells.

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  • 1Combs Res. Bldg., Rm. 306, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536, USA.

Abstract

Androgens are functionally required for the normal growth of the prostate gland and in prostate tumor development and progression. Epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) is an important process during normal development and in cancer cell metastasis induced by factors within the microenvironment, such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). This study examined the ability of androgens to influence EMT of prostate cancer epithelial cells. The EMT pattern was evaluated on the basis of expression of the epithelial markers E-cadherin/beta-catenin, and the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, as well as cytoskeleton reorganization in response to 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT; 1 nM) and/or TGF-beta (5 ng/ml). Overexpressing and silencing approaches to regulate androgen receptor (AR) expression were conducted to determine the involvement of AR in EMT in the presence or absence of an AR antagonist. Our results demonstrate that androgens induce the EMT pattern in prostate tumor epithelial cell with Snail activation and lead to significant changes in prostate cancer cell migration and invasion potential. Expression levels of AR inversely correlated with androgen-mediated EMT in prostate tumor epithelial cells, pointing to a low AR content required for the EMT phenotype. These findings indicate the ability of androgens to induce EMT by potentially bypassing the functional involvement of TGF-beta, thus contributing to metastatic behavior of prostate cancer cells.-Zhum, M.-L., Kyprianou, N. Role of androgens and the androgen receptor in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasion of prostate cancer cells.

PMID:
19901020
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2830130
Free PMC Article

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