Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Psychiatry Res. 2009 Dec 30;170(2-3):177-82. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2008.09.010. Epub 2009 Nov 8.

Are cognitive deficits in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder related to the course of the disorder? A prospective controlled follow-up study of grown up boys with persistent and remitting course.

Author information

  • 1Massachusetts General Hospital, Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Boston, MA, USA.


To investigate the longitudinal course of cognitive functions in boys with persistent and remittent attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood into young adult years. Males (n=217) 15-31 years with and without ADHD were assessed at 3 time points over 10 years into young adulthood. Subjects were stratified into Remittent ADHD, and Persistent ADHD based on the course of ADHD. Cognitive domains included: 1) overall IQ (overall IQ, block design IQ, vocabulary IQ); 2) achievement scores in reading and math and measures of executive function (Wechsler arithmetic, digit span, digit symbol, Rey-Osterrieth, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and the Stroop Test). Cognitive outcomes were modeled as a function of group (Controls, Remittent ADHD, and Persistent ADHD), age, group by age interaction, and any demographic confounders using linear growth-curve models. There were no significant interaction effects of group by time. Main group effects indicated that persistent and remittent ADHD groups both had significantly lower scores on all cognitive outcomes compared with controls, and these did not differ between the ADHD subgroups Psychometrically defined cognitive deficits are relatively stable into young adult years and appear to be independent of the course of ADHD. More work is needed to help define the implications of these deficits in individuals with a remitting course of ADHD.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk