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J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009 Nov;22(11):1021-38. doi: 10.3109/14767050902994754.

A prospective cohort study of the value of maternal plasma concentrations of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in early pregnancy and midtrimester in the identification of patients destined to develop preeclampsia.

Author information

  • 1Perinatology Research Branch, NICHD/NIH/DHHS, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. jkusanov@med.wayne.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Changes in the maternal plasma concentrations of angiogenic (placental growth factor (PlGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) and anti-angiogenic factors (sEng and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1)) precede the clinical presentation of preeclampsia. This study was conducted to examine the role of maternal plasma PlGF, sEng, and sVEGFR-1 concentrations in early pregnancy and midtrimester in the identification of patients destined to develop preeclampsia.

METHODS:

This longitudinal cohort study included 1622 consecutive singleton pregnant women. Plasma samples were obtained in early pregnancy (6-15 weeks) and midtrimester (20-25 weeks). Maternal plasma PlGF, sEng, and sVEGFR-1 concentrations were determined using sensitive and specific immunoassays. The primary outcome was the development of preeclampsia. Secondary outcomes included term, preterm, and early-onset preeclampsia. Receiving operating characteristic curves, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and multivariable logistic regression were applied. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant.

RESULTS:

(1) The prevalence of preeclampsia, term, preterm, (<37 weeks) and early-onset preeclampsia (<34 weeks) was 3.8 (62/1622), 2.5 (40/1622), 1.4 (22/1622) and 0.6% (9/1622), respectively; (2) Higher likelihood ratios were provided by ratios of midtrimester plasma concentrations of PlGF, sEng, and sVEGFR-1 than single analytes; (3) Individual angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors did not perform well in the identification of preeclampsia as a whole; in particular, they perform poorly in the prediction of term preeclampsia; (4) In contrast, a combination of these analytes such as the PlGF/sEng ratio, its delta and slope had the best predictive performance with a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 98-99%, and likelihood ratios for a positive test of 57.6, 55.6 and 89.6, respectively, for predicting early-onset preeclampsia.

CONCLUSIONS:

(1) The PlGF/sEng ratio and its delta and slope had an excellent predictive performance for the prediction of early-onset preeclampsia, with very high likelihood ratios for a positive test result and very low likelihood ratios for a negative test result; and (2) Although the positive likelihood ratios are high and the positive predictive values low, the number of patients needed to be closely followed is 4:1 for the PlGF/sEng ratio and 3:1 for the slope of PlGF/sEng.

PMID:
19900040
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3427777
Free PMC Article
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