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MMWR Surveill Summ. 2009 Nov 6;58(7):1-23.

Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Registry Surveillance - four states, 2005-2007.

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  • 1National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA. MGeorge@cdc.gov

Abstract

PROBLEM/CONDITION:

Each year, approximately 795,000 persons in the United States experience a new or recurrent stroke. Data from the prototype phase (2001-2004) of the Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Registry (PCNASR) suggested that numerous acute stroke patients did not receive treatment according to established guidelines.

REPORTING PERIOD:

This report summarizes PCNASR data collected during 2005-2007 from Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, and North Carolina, the first states to have PCNASRs implemented in and led by state health departments.

DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM:

PCNASR was established by CDC in 2001 to track and improve the quality of hospital-based acute stroke care. The prototype phase (2001-2004) registries were led by CDC-funded clinical investigators in academic and medical institutions, whereas the full implementation of the 2005-2007 statewide registries was led by CDC-funded state health departments. Health departments in each state recruit hospitals to collect data. To be included in PCNASR, patients must be aged >or=18 years and have a clinical diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or transient ischemic attack (TIA) or an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code indicative of a stroke or TIA. Data for patients who are already hospitalized at the time of stroke are not included. The following 10 performance measures of care, based on established guidelines for care of acute stroke patients, were developed by CDC in partnership with neurologists who specialize in stroke care: 1) received deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis, 2) received antithrombotic therapy at discharge, 3) received anticoagulation therapy for atrial fibrillation, 4) received tissue plasminogen activator (among eligible patients), 5) received antithrombotic therapy within 48 hours of admission or by the end of the second hospital day, 6) received lipid level testing, 7) received dysphagia screening, 8) received stroke education, 9) received smoking cessation counseling, and 10) received assessment for rehabilitation services. Adherence to these performance measures of care was calculated using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria.

RESULTS:

A total of 195 hospitals from Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, and North Carolina contributed data to PCNASR during 2005-2007, representing 56,969 patients. Approximately half (53.3%) the cases of stroke in the registry occurred among females. A total of 2.5% of cases were among Hispanics; however, the proportion varied significantly by state. Cases among black patients ranged from 5.6% in Massachusetts to 35.8% in Georgia. The age at which patients experienced stroke varied significantly by state. On average, patients were oldest in Massachusetts (median age: 77 years) and youngest in Georgia (median age: 67 years). Overall, the clinical diagnosis for registry stroke cases was hemorrhagic stroke (13.8% of cases), ischemic stroke (56.2%), ill-defined stroke (i.e., medical record did not specify ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke; 7.3%), and TIA (21.6%). A total of 18.5% of patients with stroke symptoms arrived at the hospital within 2 hours of symptom onset; however, the time from onset of symptoms to hospital arrival was not recorded or was not known for the majority (57.8%) of patients. Of the 56,969 patients, 47.6% were transported by emergency medical services (EMS) from the scene of symptom onset, 11.1% were transferred by EMS from another hospital, and 39.4% used private or other transportation. Adherence to acute stroke care measures defined by PCNASR were as follows: received antithrombotic therapy at discharge (97.6%), received antithrombotic therapy within 48 hours of admission or by the end of the second hospital day (94.6%), assessed for rehabilitation services (90.1%), received deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis (85.5%), received anticoagulation therapy for atrial fibrillation (82.5%), received smoking cessation counseling (78.6%), received lipid level testing (69.9%), received stroke education (58.8%), received dysphagia screening (56.7%), and received tissue plasminogen activator (among eligible patients) (39.8%).

INTERPRETATION:

Between 2001-2004 (prototype phase) and 2005-2007 (implementation by state health departments), substantial improvement occurred in dysphagia screening, lipid testing, smoking cessation counseling, and antithrombotic therapy prescribed at discharge. These initial improvements indicate that a surveillance system to track and improve the quality of hospital-based stroke care can be led successfully by state health departments, although further evaluations over time are needed. Despite these improvements, additional increases are needed in adherence to these and other performance measures. Nearly 40% of stroke patients did not use EMS services for transport to hospitals, and no change occurred in the proportion of patients who arrived at the hospital in time to receive thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke. Patients who are not promptly transported to hospitals after symptom onset are ineligible for thrombolytic therapy and other timely interventions for acute stroke.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS:

Results from PCNASR indicate the need for additional public health measures to inform the public of the need for timely activation of EMS services for signs and symptoms of stroke. In addition, low rates of adherence to certain measures of stroke care underscore the need for continuing coordinated programs to improve stroke quality of care. Additional analyses are needed to assess improvements in adherence to guidelines over time.

PMID:
19893482
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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