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Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Mar;51(3):1401-7. doi: 10.1167/iovs.09-4180. Epub 2009 Nov 5.

McMonnies questionnaire: enhancing screening for dry eye syndromes with Rasch analysis.

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  • 1NH&MRC (National Health and Medical Research Council) Centre for Clinical Eye Research, Department of Ophthalmology, Flinders Medical Centre and Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, South Australia, Australia;



To determine, by using Rasch analysis, whether the McMonnies questionnaire possesses the properties of a measure and whether screening for dry eye syndromes (DESs) can be enhanced by using different scoring approaches.


The questionnaire was self-administered by 43 female Sjögren syndrome patients (>45 years) recruited from a specialized rheumatology clinic and 140 age-matched control subjects. Data were scaled by using Rasch analysis and were assessed for response category behavior and ability to reliably discriminate between severity of the participant's dry eye symptoms (i.e., person separation reliability; minimum acceptable value, 0.80). Standard summary statistics of screening performance were calculated for raw and Rasch-scaled scores from receiver-operating characteristic analysis including area under the curve (AUC). Best predictors (i.e., questions) from a discriminant analysis were used to calculate a discriminant function for both Rasch-scaled and raw scores.


Response categories were not used as intended, necessitating a collapse of categories. Person separation reliability was inadequate (0.75). A Rasch-scaled discriminant cutoff score of -2.29 logits from seven items provided an AUC of 0.99 with 95% sensitivity. However, discriminant raw score from modification in the scoring of a question (e.g., use of medications), used as one rather than multiple questions, provided an AUC (0.97) that was not significantly different (z = 1.11, P = 0.27), with 98% sensitivity, and required only two questions.


In this population, the McMonnies questionnaire does not function as a measure. However, various scoring methods can be used to efficiently screen for DES.

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