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Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010 Jan;17(1):73-9. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00266-09. Epub 2009 Nov 4.

Physical and chemical characterization and immunologic properties of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi capsular polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugates.

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  • 1International Vaccine Institute, SNU Research Park, San 4-8 Bongcheon-7 Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul, Korea.


Typhoid fever remains a serious public health problem in developing countries, especially among young children. Recent studies showed more than 50% of typhoid cases are in children under 5 years old. Licensed vaccines, such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi capsular Vi, did not confer protection against typhoid fever for this age group. Vi conjugate, prepared by binding Vi to Pseudomonas aeruginosa recombinant exoprotein A (rEPA), induces protective levels of antibody at as young as 2 years old. Because of the lack of regulatory precedent for rEPA in licensing vaccines, we employed diphtheria toxoid (DT) as the carrier protein to accommodate accessibility in developing countries. Five lots of Vi-DT conjugates were prepared using adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) as the linker. All 5 lots showed consistency in their physical and chemical characteristics and final yields. These Vi-DT conjugates elicited levels of IgG anti-Vi in young mice significantly higher than those in mice injected with Vi alone and induced a booster response upon reinjection. This booster effect was absent if the Vi replaced one of the two conjugate injections. Vi-DT was stable under repeated freeze-thaw (20 cycles). We plan to perform clinical evaluation of the safety and immunogenicity of Vi-DT when added to the infant combination vaccines.

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